Mármol

Cuando nos acercamos a la historia de la arquitectura y la escultura, es inevitable que no hablemos del mármol, éste ha sido utilizado desde la antigüedad no sólo como material escultórico, sino también arquitectónico.

El mármol, es una piedra compacta formada a partir de rocas calizas, su origen surge de la reacción química que sufre la piedra caliza al exponerse a temperaturas y presiones muy altas. Este material noble es una roca metamórfica que generalmente se encuentra en regiones donde se ha producido actividad volcánica.

 

El componente básico del mármol es el carbonato cálcico en un 90%, el resto de los componentes son considerados “impurezas”, Pero curiosamente estos materiales adicionales son los que dan gran variedad de colores al mármol y definen las características físicas. El mármol presenta una gran variedad de tonos blancos, grises, rosas, verdes y negros, e incluyendo betas que varían de acuerdo al lugar que fueron extraídas.

Una de las características del mármol es que éste al procesarlo, con un pulido alcanza un alto nivel de brillo natural, y no requiere ceras ni componentes químicos.

El proceso de extracción se lleva a cabo en canteras y yacimientos naturales ubicados en grandes montañas rocosas. El primer pedazo de roca extraído tiene generalmente unos 12 metros de largo. A partir de este primer bloque se cortan piezas más pequeñas, que luego se cortarán en espesores más pequeños para la fabricación de encimeras, pisos, revestimientos u otros elementos.

En México las principales regiones productoras se localizan en la región llamada de La Laguna y se ubica en el límite de los Estados de Durango, Coahuila, Zacatecas y gran parte del Estado de Puebla.

Existen otras zonas productoras de relevancia, ubicadas  en Querétaro, Hidalgo, Oaxaca y Jalisco

Una de las grandes creaciones en nuestro país es el Palacio de Bellas Artes, ubicado en el Centro Histórico de la Ciudad de México, admirada por la fachada de mármol color blanco y de diversos tonos de mármoles en el interior.

La belleza externa del mármol y su estructura, han convertido a este material en el favorito principalmente en la construcción, decoración y escultura.

El mármol se ha convertido en un material protagonista para el interiorismo, muebles y objetos de diseño por su versatilidad,  elegancia, textura y al ser un elemento natural, encaja en cualquier tipo de decoración.

 

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Parte 2

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Parte 3

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Parte 1

Piedra volcánica

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